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Here’s What Actually Happens When You Wake Up During Surgery Let’s talk about the bizarre thing that can happen on the operating table.

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1. It's a clinical phenomenon called anesthetic awareness.

'Anesthetic awareness, also known as intraoperative recall, occurs when a patient becomes conscious during a procedure that is performed under general anesthesia, and they can recall this episode of waking up after the surgery is over,' Dr. Daniel Cole, president-elect of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, tells BuzzFeed Life. Patients may remember the incident immediately after the surgery, or sometimes even days or weeks later. But rest assured, doctors are doing everything they can and using the best technology available to make sure this doesn't happen.

2. One to two people out of 1,000 wake up during surgery each year in the United States.

"It's not a huge number, but it's enough people that it's definitely a problem," says Cole. Plus, the true rate could be even higher. "The data is all over the place because it's mostly self-reported." "Ideally, the anesthesiologist would routinely see the patient post-operation and ask them about intraoperative awareness," he says. But this opportunity is often lost because patients are discharged or choose to go home as soon as they can after surgery. "Even if they remember three, five days later, they might feel embarrassed and don't want to make a big deal so they don't mention it to their surgeon. So there can be underreporting of awareness."

3. It happens when general anesthesia fails.

General anesthesia is supposed to do two things: keep the patient totally unconscious or 'asleep' during surgery, and with no memory of the entire procedure. If there is a decreased amount of anesthesia for some reason, the patient can start to wake up. The cocktail of medication in general anesthesia often includes an analgesic to relieve pain and a paralytic. The paralytic does exactly what it sounds like — it paralyzes the body so that it remains still. When the anesthesia does fail, the paralytics make it especially difficult for patients to indicate that they're awake.

4. And it's not the same as conscious sedation.

Conscious sedation, sometimes referred to as "twilight sleep" is when you're given a combination of a sedative and a local or regional anesthetic (which just numbs one part or section of the body) for minor surgeries, and it's not intended to knock you out completely or cause deep unconciousness. It's typically what you would get while getting your wisdom teeth out, having a minor foot surgery, or getting a colonoscopy. With conscious sedation, you may fall asleep or drift in and out of sleep, but this isn't the same as true anesthetic awareness, says Cole.

5. Contrary to popular belief, it doesn't usually happen right in the middle of surgery.

"The anesthesiologist is very aware that this can happen and never relaxes or lets down their guard at any point during the surgery, no matter how long," says Cole. "Awareness tends to occur on the margins, when the procedure is starting and you don't have the full anesthetic dose or when you're waking up from anesthesia, because it's safest to decrease the amount of anesthesia very slowly and gradually toward the end." However, this also depends on the surgery and patient... which we'll get to in a little bit.

6. Patients often report hearing sounds and voices. "The most common sensation is auditory," says Cole. Patients will report that they were aware of voices, and even conversations that went on in the operating room — which can be especially terrifying if loud tools are involved. "If you look at the effects of anesthetics on the brain, the auditory system is the last one to shut down, so it makes a lot of sense."

And opening your eyes to see the surgeons operating on you? Basically impossible. "First of all, the anesthesia puts you to sleep, so your eyelids shut naturally. Even if you regain consciousness, the anesthesia still restricts muscle movement so your eyes will stay shut," Cole explains. "But there's still 10–20% eye opening when you sleep. So during surgery, we will cover the patient's eyes or tape them shut to prevent injury and keep the eyes clean."

7. Few patients experience pressure (and rarely pain) during anesthetic awareness.

Less than a third of patients who report anesthetic awareness also report experiencing pressure or pain, says Cole. "But that's still one too many, because the patient is kind of locked in and aware of what's happening to them but unable to move, which is terrifying." Typically, sufficient analgesic (pain reliever) is given, so that even if you wake up you won't feel pain. "More often, we use an anesthetic technique which includes a morphine-type drug to reduce pain. But this is really required for when the patient wakes up and they no longer have anesthetic so they are conscious and aware of pain," Cole says.

Even if the analgesic wears off, there should be sufficient anesthesia to keep the patient unconscious and pain-free. "It's rare. You'd have to both have insufficient anesthesia and insufficient pain medicine at the same time to feel prolonged pain during awareness," Cole says.

8. Anesthetic awareness can cause anxiety and PTSD.

"The potential psychological effects of awareness range greatly," says Cole. "It can cause anxiety, flashbacks, fear, loneliness, panic attacks — PTSD is the worse. It's been reported in a small minority of patients, but it can be very severe." says Cole. If doctors hear about someone having intraoperative awareness, they will try to get the person into therapy as early as possible, before memories can be embedded in a harmful or stressful way to patients. "If you were in the hospital for a week and on day two we heard that you woke up during surgery, we'd get a therapist in the same day. We always want to mitigate so we can try to reduce the severity of symptoms," Cole says.

9. It's most often caused by an equipment malfunction.

General anesthesia can either be given intravenously (where all or most is given through an IV) or more commonly as a gas, which you breathe in through a mask. If the equipment in either of these were to malfunction, and the anesthesiologist wasn't aware of it because the signal that gas is too low doesn't work, for example, then patients would stop receiving medication and start to wake up. Again, this is terrifying but rare.

"The anesthesia equipment is like an airplane," Cole says. "The anesthesiologist will do a pre-flight check and go over all equipment to make sure it works. But sometimes, that equipment can malfunction as short as an hour later so it won't show up before taking off." Likewise, there is equipment used to monitor the patient's vitals and brain activity, which can also fail to signal to doctors that the patient is waking up.

10. Less commonly, it's the physician or anesthesiologist's fault.

"Any time humans are involved, human error is always a possibility — but it’s more common that technology fails," says Cole. "Physicians and anesthesiologists are well-trained to look out for signs of awareness during surgery, which obviously includes any movement of muscles and changes in vitals." Since paralytics are often involved, doctors also closely monitor other signs like heart rate, blood pressure, tears, or brain electrical activity for any red flags. However, sometimes patients can be on medications that suppress the body's responses and inhibit the monitoring systems from effectively picking up warning signs of light anesthesia and awareness. These incidences can make it difficult to detect awareness, so physician anesthesiologists must closely watch an array of signs.

11. It is more likely to happen during surgeries that require "light" anesthesia.

Anesthesia also comes with risk factors, and can be harmful depending on the surgery or patient's risk. "Awareness can occur when there is too light of anesthesia, which we often do deliberately for high-risk situations," says Cole. According to the American Society of Anesthesiologists, high-risk surgeries include heart surgery, brain surgery, and emergency surgeries in which the patient has lost a lot of blood or they can easily go into shock. Or the patient may need a lower dose of anesthesia due to risk factors such as heart problems, obesity, a genetic factor, or being on narcotics or sedatives. "For instance, anesthesia depresses the heart, so a normal dose could be life-threatening to someone with heart problems," Cole explains.

"Sometimes you have to make a trade off," says Cole. "Would you rather have a high level of anesthesia which threatens your body's life functions, or a low level which ensures safety but increases the risks of waking up during the procedure?"

12. ...But if that's the case, your doctor will talk to you about it first.

Patients often feel better knowing that the decreased amount of anesthesia is for their own safety. "We tell the patient that there's an increased chance that you may hear some voices or fuzziness, but if it gets uncomfortable we can tell and will increase the dose," says Cole. "Patients are more understanding and happy when they understand that the risk of waking up is for their own safety."

Also, you should know that if you've had a previous incidence of awareness, that puts you at higher risk for another episode. Cole explains that in this case, doctors will spend a lot of time with the patient and anesthesiologist describing exactly what to expect, so that hopefully they won’t experience it again.

13. ALL THAT BEING SAID, the chances of this happening are slim, and medical professionals are doing everything they can to ensure that this does not happen.

According to Cole, it's always helpful to spend some time pre-operatively with the surgeon and physician anesthesiologist going over the procedure and how they'll get you through it safely and comfortably.

"I do something called 'patient engagement' and 'shared decision-making' so I can make sure the patient understands literally everything. Some patients don't want to talk about awareness because it will give them more anxiety, and they just trust us," says Cole. However, even if you aren't at risk, your doctors will be happy to answer any questions you have about anesthesia before the procedure.

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Kreutz Ideology analyses destruction differently. Social violence inherently benefits economic elites. The less peaceful a society, the less does social control restrict the liberties of the wealthy.

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New Cannabis Strain Designed to Help Women Orgasm

It’s well-known that cannabis can have an aphrodisiac effect on the consumer, but there’s a new strain on the California cannabis market that the original grower claims is specifically designed to enhance the sexual experience of women, and even help them achieve orgasm.

The strain is called Sexxpot and grower Karyn Wagner developed it. Sexxpot’s parent strain is Mr. Nice, which has a solid reputation for offering sensual, aphrodisiac effects. Mr. Nice comes from two popular strains – G13 and Hash Plant.

Wagner’s goal was to take the best sex-enhancing characteristics of Mr. Nice and figure out how to intensify those feelings. Sexxpot was the result of Wagner and her company brainstorming about how to take Mr. Nice and develop it into Ms. Even Nicer.

Wagner and her crew claim to have succeeded with this goal, offering a unique selling point on the Sexxpot strain. A strain allegedly designed to help women orgasm is sure to see steady market growth.

It might seem counterintuitive, but Sexxpot has a relatively low THC level of 14 percent. Wagner thinks that since the strain has less THC that it may actually be a better for improving sex as opposed to the heavy hitters.

The thought process is that lower THC could be just enough to heighten the senses while still relaxing and removing inhibitions. A high THC strain, or especially a dab, could leave the occasional toker on the couch. Sexxpot is still predominantly indica, tending to lean towards more intense body highs. Wagner and her team wanted to make sure that this strain wasn’t so strong that users ended up spaced out before they were even able to get into bed.

Sexxpot is only available in California for now, but as the market continues to grow – and the strain’s popularity continues to rise – that will likely change. This particular approach to a strain is one of the many interesting ones that growers, entrepreneurs and other cannabis professionals have thought of. It is a hint towards the future of cannabis – specific strains designed for very specific things.

Is Sexxpot truly the first of its kind, or do you know of any other strains designed with similar intentions? What strains have you found that help your sex life? Let us know in the comments.

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It is the secret dream of every Swedish or German woman to marry a black men, or at least have sex with a black man. Every smart young African man should migrate to Europe. Free money, nice house, good sex!

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Clitbait: 10 things you didn't know about the clitoris

On Saturday night, Alli Sebastian Wolf delivered a sex-ed lesson in one of the world’s most famous performance venues. The Australian artist was pulled on to the stage of the Sydney Opera House’s Concert Hall at the request of the musician Amanda Palmer, who had seen Wolf’s recent piece “Glitoris” online.

It’s much as it sounds: a giant, sparkling clitoris, a 100:1 scale model of the real thing, covered in intricate, sequinned “nerves” so that it lights up the room “like a divine disco ball”, says Wolf.

Palmer said it was the most effective artwork in the fight against fascism she’d ever seen. Wolf will settle for a world with equality on toilet walls, where there are as many clitorises graffitied as penises.

She’s motivated by how little is known about the clitoris, even by those who have one themselves or interact with them regularly. “Sex ed was, ‘These are the ovaries, this is a penis, don’t get herpes, off you go’,” says Wolf.

This is a 3D model of a clitoris – and the start of a sexual revolution Minna Salami Read more “It’s really interesting to me just how few people know about how the clitoris works, or what it looks like. I personally didn’t know until I was in my mid-20s, which seems like just such a shame.”

With Glitoris, she wanted to create “something fun and fabulous ... [and] really pleasurable to engage with – not a static artwork or an anatomy lesson, but something where people could come have a bit of a fondle and enjoy the sparkly colours”.

Hooked into the foyer of the Sydney Opera House, she said, it seemed to do the trick: “Everyone wanted to give it a bit of a hug.”

And now that the giant, golden clitoris has got your attention, here are 10 facts Wolf wants you to know.

A clitoris is like an iceberg

Mostly invisible below the surface, wrapping around the vaginal tunnel and extending out towards the thighs. “The part that we’re seeing and feeling is just this tiny little glans that creates the head of the clitoris,” says Wolf. “From there, all this fabulous magical stuff is happening beneath the surface.”

2. There are more than 8,000 nerve endings in the tip of the clitoris alone – double the number of those in a penis A clitoris is made up of 18 distinct parts – a mixture of erectile tissue, muscle and nerves. “All those little pieces are working together to create the amazing sensations that anyone with a clitoris feels when they’re having orgasms.”

The actual vaginal tunnel has almost no sensation at all – giving birth through something as sensitive as a clitoris would be “excruciating”, says Wolf.

3. They can swell as much as 300% when engorged Clitorises range from 7-12 cm in length and swell by 50 to 300% when engorged when aroused. It’s not “a zero to 100 situation”, says Wolf, but as you draw closer to orgasm, it increases in size.

When at rest, the “arms”, or corpora cavernosa, of the clitoris’ body extend straight out towards your thighs. When you’re aroused, they curl around “and give your internal body a little bit of a hug”.

4. G-spot and penetrative orgasms are clitoral Both stimulate internal parts of the clitoris. “You can come from these different places that are all using the clitoris but using it in different ways,” says Wolf.

Understanding has been frustrated by historical heteronormative studies of the female anatomy that assumed stimulation by a penis was necessary to orgasm; Wolf blames Freud.

It was only in 2009 that a small team of French researchers carried out the first sonographic mapping of an erect clitoris, even though the technology to do so had existed for years.

5. ‘Clit’ is relatively recent terminology The first recorded use of the word “clit” was in America in the 1950s.

“Clitoris” dates back to the 17th century and could derive from words for “sheath”, “key” or “latch”, or “to touch or tickle”, says Wolf.

6. It is the only known body part with the sole purpose of pleasure ... But one in 10 women has never had an orgasm – and most, at some point, will have “a hard time” reaching orgasm with a partner, says Wolf.

She blames a “culture of shame” surrounding female sexuality that suppresses scientific research and personal exploration.

7. ... But it has not always been just a good time Throughout history, doctors have advocated for the removal of the clitoris to cure mental illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia, or “this pesky problem of women ‘unnaturally’ desiring sex”, says Wolf.

In ancient Greece, lesbians or women who actively desired sex were often considered witches, “despite the fact that your husband could have 16 lovers, and be off at the bath houses with young men”.

And in medieval times, it was referred to as “the devil’s teat”, through which the devil could suck your soul. “The witch trials are a great example of the war against women, which hasn’t really stopped.”

8. The clitoris can form a penis – and vice versa In some forms of gender confirmation surgery, the clitoris can be enlarged with hormones to form a penis. In other cases, the penile glans can be reduced in size and relocated to create a clitoris.

The first MRI scan out in 2009 was carried out by Dr Odile Buisson and Dr Pierre Foldès partly to aid in understanding of how to treat female genital mutilation.

9. It is the only part of the human body that never ages

Australia's first female genital mutilation trial: how a bright young girl convinced a jury Read more An 80-year-old clit looks and works the same as a 20-year-old one. But it does keep growing – it could be 2.5 times as big in your 90s as it was in your teen years.

“They’re weird, fabulous little creatures,” says Wolf happily. (Your nose also continues to grow past the point you reach your maximum height.)

10. Every clit is unique They come in different shapes and colours, from pale pink to black. “As varied as your face,” she says. “If you look at a picture of a swath of vaginas – I’ve never seen two that look similar.”

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Islamize Europe and get women out of politics. Feminism is the root if terrorism.

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A Controversial Procedure To Restore The Clitoris After FGM

When Kiki was nine years old, in Guinea, she thought she was being taken to buy some Play-Doh. Instead, she was taken to a stranger’s house and forced to undergo a procedure known as female genital mutilation (FGM), sometimes referred to as female genital cutting. Over 200 million women around the world have undergone FGM, but Kiki is one of only a few thousand who have attempted to surgically reverse its effects, electing to have a so-called clitoral restoration surgery.

The restorative surgery is seemingly a godsend for women who unwittingly underwent FGM as children — offering the chance to both physically restore sensation and also the opportunity to reclaim their own sexuality. But the procedure is not without controversy. Because the surgery is relatively new, and therapy can help with psychological issues, not all experts are convinced that surgery is the best option for FGM victims in the long-term. Further complicating the conversation around the procedure is the fact that one of its largest proponents is a new religion that believes extraterrestrials engineered life on Earth. (More on that later.)

In Kiki’s home country of Guinea, FGM is traditional—70 percent of women in the country aged 20 to 24 were cut before age 10. And although her mother’s family, devoutly Muslim, didn’t approve of the practice, the women on her father’s side encouraged it.

On the day of her FGM, her aunt took her to a stranger’s house. “The next thing I knew, I was jumped on,” Kiki, whose name has been changed for this story, recalls to Vocativ. “When you feel like someone is about to harm you, you want to run. I tried to take off, they circled me, next thing I knew I was on the ground.” Kiki was taken to the backyard. One woman sat on her chest, making it hard to breathe, while another two women pulled her legs apart. Kiki recalls being overcome by pain and fear; at some point during the procedure, she says, she lost consciousness.

In the immediate aftermath of cutting, women can feel severe pain, bleeding or have infections; in the long term, they might have pain during urination, menstruation, or intercourse; buildup of scar tissue; and psychological problems like depression or post-traumatic stress disorder.

Now Kiki lives in Indiana, having graduated not long ago from university there. When she first tried to have sex in college, it was painful. She could have an orgasm, but “it was a struggle…it would take a while,” she says. Her friends would talk about their great sex lives, and she would just listen, nodding. “‘Why are you so quiet?’ they would ask me. And I would say, ‘Well, what do you want me to say?’”

A few years ago, she heard about clitoral restoration and set out on a path that would ultimately change her relationship to sex and to her own identity.

On a physical level, the goal of clitoral restoration is to reduce pain and restore lost sensation to women’s genitals. On an abstract level, it can help victims of FGM take ownership of their identity and sexuality.

FGM is a catch-all term that refers to a range of procedures, from the entire removal of the external part of the clitoris (clitorectomy) to “nicking” the clitoris but leaving it intact. There are lots of reasons why cultures continue to perform FGM, but it’s no coincidence that it involves the organ that is the nexus of much of a woman’s sexual pleasure. “In some cultures, women are told that if they don’t cut the clitoris, it will be big or make a woman hypersexual so that she will not be marriageable,” says Jasmine Abdulcadir, a gynecologist at Geneva University Hospitals in Switzerland, where she runs a clinic for victims of FGM.

But, much like an iceberg, only a small percentage of the clitoris is visible outside the body. So even if the visible part has been nicked or removed, as is the case among women who fit into the first two classes of FGM, there’s more tissue inside the body. To perform a clitoral restoration procedure, the surgeon slices open the area around where the clitoral tissue would typically exit the body, and simply pulls down the existing tissue, fastening it to the surrounding tissues to keep it in place.

“When I go to reconstruct clitorises where there has been cutting, the clitoris is always there 100 percent of the time. There’s no question it’s still there,” says Marci Bowers, an OBGYN who has performed more than 200 clitoral restoration procedures. “In fact, in one third of cases where I operate, the clitoris is completely intact. There’s nothing missing. It’s just covered in a web of scar tissue.”

The surgery itself takes less than an hour and is done under anesthesia. The recovery usually takes a few months.

First performed in Egypt 2006, clitoral restoration procedures truly started to gain traction in 2012, when French surgeon Pierre Foldes published a study for which he performed the procedure on nearly 3,000 women. A year after the operation, Foldes followed up with about 30 percent of the patients, and found that most of them had reduced pain and increased sensation in the clitoris. Half had even experienced an orgasm.

The results were a sensation, sparking interest among other surgeons and patients alike, plus kicking off a flurry of stories in the popular press.

Today there are a handful of surgeons running clinics scattered across the world—Geneva, Burkina Faso, San Francisco—who know how to perform the clitoral restorations. One of the biggest orchestrators is a Las Vegas-nonprofit called Clitoraid. The organization was founded in the philosophy of the Raelian Movement, a religion with followers that believe that human extraterrestrials engineered and synthesized DNA to create all life on Earth. Rael, the founder of the religion, reportedly saw first-hand what effects FGM can have on women during a visit to West Africa in 2003, according to a Clitoraid press officer.

In Raelism, pleasure is an important way to connect to the extraterrestrial creators, and FGM works counter to that mission. “When barbaric traditions cut off the clitoris of little girls, not only do they violate their right to body integrity as children, but they also violate their very right to feel mentally and emotionally balanced and harmonious throughout their lives,” the press officer told Vocativ in an email.

Clitoraid now mostly serves to raise awareness for FGM and to foster connections for clitoral restoration procedures—between surgeons so that they can be trained to perform them, between victims of FGM and doctors to do the surgery.

That’s how Kiki found out about the clitoral restoration procedure. When she came to the U.S. for college, she was evaluated by a doctor who suggested that Kiki look into it. “Since I’m a curious person, I started doing research online,” Kiki says. She contacted Clitoraid and, in early 2015, she hopped on a plane to meet Harold Henning, one of the two surgeons in the country performing the procedure at the time (and the only one who is also Raelian). Kiki didn’t pay anything for the surgery itself, she says—just her plane ticket and the $500 hospital fee. She knew about the organization’s connection to Raelism, but it wasn’t pushed on her; she doesn’t remember ever talking about it with Henning.

Kiki’s recovery went quickly and within a few months she was totally healed. Now, more than a year later, she says you can’t even tell she had surgery. And It’s been a game-changer for her sex life: “I was not feeling much pleasure. Now it’s completely different,” she says.

If the effects of FGM were only physical — or if all cases were as straightforward as Kiki’s — experts would likely recommend the procedure unequivocally. But FGM is much more complex than that. The surgery comes with risks, things like infection and complications. And, even if it goes according to plan, it might not address the psychological issues like fear of intimacy.

Abdulcadir, who runs the clinic in Geneva, has the training to perform the surgery, but she considers it a last resort. Of the approximately 15 women who come to her clinic every month, only about 20 percent ask for the surgery (the rest are seeking help due to pregnancy or complications from FGM). Those that do want the surgery spend three months meeting with psychiatrists and sex therapists, and receiving education about their own anatomy, before the surgery is a possibility. “Once they start to know how their bodies work, how their anatomy and clitoris are, the majority of them do not go for surgery—their needs are met by counseling and education,” Abdulcadir says.

Part of the reason for this is that Abdulcadir has reservations about the long-term effects of the procedure. Foldes, in his seminal study, followed up with less than a third of the patients, and only after a year. “What happens after five years? After 10? When a woman changes partners or when she has kids? We’ve had studies about clitoral restoration procedures,” Abdulcadir says, “But now we need good, quality studies with long-term follow-ups.”

This lack of long-term data is part of the reason that the World Health Organization, in the recently-published guidelines about FGM (of which Abdulcadir was one of the collaborators), stated that there’s not yet enough evidence to wholeheartedly recommend the procedure.

Mariya Karimjee, a freelance writer based in Karachi, Pakistan who has publicly discussed her experience of being cut and its effects on her as an adult, says she thought about the surgery when she first heard about Foldes’ study. She brought it up with her doctor, but he didn’t sound totally convinced by the science, Karimjee recalls, in part because there wasn’t enough long-term follow-up.

Eventually, she gave up on the idea of the surgery. “I wanted an easy fix, to undo the damage,” Karimjee says. “It sounds appealing. But at this point in my life I don’t know that it really is a quick fix.” It would take months for the skin to regrow, and it would be painful. “I don’t need any more pain.”

Bowers and Henning, both of whom perform the surgery primarily on patients from Clitoriad, agree that counseling is important, but believe the surgery is as well. The procedure is medically sound, Bowers says, but “the question is, psychologically, is it worthwhile? You don’t want to re-traumatize someone.” She recommends sex therapy to many of her patients after the surgery.

Henning believes that all people could benefit from sex therapy, “but that’s not criteria for surgery,” he says. “Most of these women have lived with this for many years. They have already had all the experiences they’re going to have with sexuality beforehand.”

For her part, Bowers is disappointed by WHO’s cautionary approach in recommending the restoration procedure. “It does need to be evidence-based, there’s a healthy reason for that. But what they’ve said, that’s really misinformation. All it takes is to hear one personal account of someone having the first orgasm in their life to say there’s no more evidence needed. This works.”

There’s certainly no one-size-fits-all solution for how women deal with the effects of FGM. Karimjee plans to find a sex therapist—“I would rather figure out if there’s a psychological trauma, and do that hard work. Even if I had surgery I would probably need that,” she says.

But for Kiki, who has never seen a therapist and has no plans to do so in the near future, the procedure was enough to restore her sexual function.

More importantly, the surgery make her feel like whole self. “Someone took something away from me that they were not entitled to. They did it just for the sake of it, out of cruelty,” Kiki says. “Now I got that back.”

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Why images of decapitation? This is to show that some people have real problems. Other than the issues of feminism, such as sexist language or manspreading.

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How to enjoy sex after childbirth

Sex after childbirth can be scary for many women; even though childbirth makes them to have all it takes to make their husbands want more sex on mere sighting them; talk of larger (milk-filled) breasts and pointed nipples. It is even for this reason that some men ‘compete for’ or ‘alternate’ the breasts with their new babies.

Although sexual intercourse is not encouraged until six weeks after, for those who had normal delivery, to allow the body heal faster and avoid likely infections, some men have often described such women as more attractive. But those might not be enough to boost the confidence and preparedness of some women to resume sexual activities with their husbands, and the fears may not be misplaced after all.

For those who had normal delivery, some tend to be apprehensive of what their partners would think of what has become of their body, largely because of their fatigued and ‘loose body.’ Coupled with exhaustion and other things that could take their minds away from going for another romp in the sack, it is not uncommon to see that some couples’ sex lives derail after childbirth.

And on the other hand, for those who had Caesarean Section, the pain may not abate quickly, which makes sex somewhat painful. Even though the tightness of the vagina is retained when a woman gives birth through CS, which is the reason why some men encourage their wives to go through the operation to avoid having a loose vagina afterwards, studies have however shown that sex may become more painful for such couples after childbirth until it heals completely. Thus, such women shy away from it for some time.

Impliedly, whether the delivery was done through normal delivery, use of some equipment, through CS or there was episiotomy, which is a surgical cut made at the opening of the vagina during childbirth to widen the passage for easy delivery and prevent rupture of tissues, there is usually the possibility of a cut, tear or scar at the end of the exercise, which could dampen couples’ sex lives. But there is a way out.

For women who had CS, one good way to enjoy sex after childbirth and avoid nightmarish experiences would be to explore extensive foreplay or adopt other sex positions apart from the missionary style so as not to put too much pressure on the pain until it heals.

According to a popular nurse and sexual health expert, Samantha Evans, “Pressure on the wound arising from CS can cause pain, while some loss of sensation around the wound can also occur, making it sensitive to touch. Therefore these women should avoid sexual positions which exert pressure on their abdomens and over the wound site.”

And apart from using helpful sexual positions, experts have advised foreplay, which can take both parties to orgasm without any penile intercourse. Medical experts have pointed out that the stimulation of the glans (the rounded part forming the end of the penis) can make men ejaculate, and the stimulation of the clitoris or the nipples can take women to their own destination.

Thankfully, previous studies, as earlier discussed on this page, have shown that a significant number of women don’t reach orgasm through penetrative sex, but through the stimulation of such vital parts.

According to a consultant endocrinologist, Dr. Olamoyegun Michael, couples can still have an exciting sexual experience after childbirth because, physiologically, childbirth does not affect sexual performance in women.

He said if there was no problem at delivery and there were no injuries, there should be no reason for any reduced libido or enjoyment of sex and couples can enjoy sex after delivery, as much as they did before the pregnancy.

In fact, he said such women tend to experience increased vaginal secretion, which is key in sexual enjoyment, and that if there is dryness at all, it is possibly because there is no enough stimulation. Thus, the man should engage the woman in extensive foreplay so she could be wet.

He said, “There is no physiological explanation why somebody should have reduced libido after delivery. The hormones produced during pregnancy don’t necessarily increase or reduce libido and they go back to normal after delivery. The increased blood flow occurs during pregnancy and there is nothing like that after childbirth. Six weeks after delivery, the body goes back to pre-pregnancy state. So, whatever changes that occurred that period disappears six weeks after the childbirth.”

Be that as it may, Olamoyegun cautioned that whether such women would enjoy sex, or the extent to which they would, depend on the circumstances surrounding the delivery.

He explained, “If at delivery, the child was too big, or the child was in an abnormal position, making the delivery difficult and she sustains injury, or the woman was given episiotomy, which is a surgical cut made at the opening of the vagina during childbirth to expand it, and she had a tear or injury, if it is not allowed to heal very well, she may end up in pains and that can reduce her libido. It is called dyspareunia, meaning difficult or painful sexual intercourse.

“If it was episiotomy and it was done by a competent professional and it was well sutured (a stitch or row of stitches holding together the edges of a wound or surgical incision), and they allow it to heal very well before they start having sex, there shouldn’t be any problem. They can have a good sex life afterwards. But, there will be a problem if it didn’t heal very well or if it wasn’t well done.

“For example, the stitching may narrow the birth canal (vagina), and it may cause pain during sex. If they have a problem and they feel the woman’s vagina is tighter than how it should be, she would need to see a competent professional like an obstetrician gynaecologists, who could dilate it; make it wider, and find a way to correct or expand it.

“Beyond these, during sex after childbirth, the husband needs to be gentle with the wife, especially during penetration. Such women will need to relax and there is need for significant foreplay so she could be wet to avoid pain during penetration.”

From findings, loose vagina is a common experience after normal childbirth, and it is a major turn-off for men. So, on what is the way out, Olamoyegun has this to say.

“There are various forms of exercise that can be done to tighten the vagina wall if it is loose and one of such is pelvic floor exercise, also known as Kegel exercise, which helps to tighten the muscle around the vagina. And it works, but if that is not very effective, there are other procedures to tighten it.”

He said without exercise, the vagina can still firm up with time but it may not be very effective and it will take a longer time. So, for a tighter vagina, which is key in sexual enjoyment, women should take up such exercises.

But even when all these have been taken care of, it is not uncommon to see couples having difficulty with their post-partum sex life. According to Olamoyegun, this is due to some social factors that can be addressed.

He said, “Women usually add weight during pregnancy and most women don’t shed that weight after delivery, so they might not be as pretty and attractive to their husbands as they used to be. It may reduce the number of times they have sex, and that is why such women are advised to do some exercises.

“Also, some women shift their attention from the men to the child, so, they don’t have time for sex neither do they have time to look attractive for their husbands, which can lessen the interest of the man in the woman. The fear of pregnancy is also there and it is more so for those who are not interested in family planning. These are social factors, and if they are taken care of, there is no reason why there will be a decrease in sexual drive.”

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95 percent of the victims of violence are men. Because women are natural cowards who send men to handle things when they are dangerous.

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US to destroy 2,600 tons of mustard gas stockpile

The United States army plans to start operating a $4.5 billion plant next week that will destroy the nation's largest remaining stockpile of mustard agent, complying with an international treaty that bans chemical weapons, officials said on Wednesday.

The largely automated plant at the military's Pueblo Chemical Depot in southern Colorado will begin destroying about 780,000 chemical-filled artillery shells soon after this weekend, said Greg Mohrman, site manager for the plant. He declined to be specific, citing security concerns and possible last-minute delays.

"We've practiced a lot," Mohrman told The Associated Press news agency. "Next week it gets real."

Robots will dismantle the shells, and the plant will use water and bacteria to neutralise the mustard agent, which can maim or kill by damaging skin, the eyes and airways. At full capacity, the facility can destroy an average of 500 shells a day operating around the clock.

It's expected to finish in mid-2020.

The plant will start slowly at first and likely won't reach full capacity until early next year, said Rick Holmes, project manager for the Bechtel Corp.-led team that designed and built it.

The depot has already destroyed 560 shells and bottles of mustard agent that were leaking or had other problems that made them unsuitable for the plant.

Those containers were placed in a sealed chamber, torn open with explosive charges and neutralised with chemicals. That system can only destroy four to six shells a day.

Irene Kornelly, chairwoman of a citizens advisory commission that Congress established as a liaison between the public and the plant operators, said her group had no remaining safety concerns.

The shells stored at the Pueblo depot contain a combined 2,600 tons of the chemical.

The army stores an additional 523 tons of mustard and deadly nerve agents at Blue Grass Army Depot in Kentucky. Blue Grass is expected to start destroying its weapons next year, finishing in 2023.

Mustard agent is a thick liquid, not a gas as commonly believed. It has no colour and almost no odour, but it got its name because impurities made early versions smell like mustard.

The US acquired 30,600 tons of mustard and nerve agents, but it says it never used them in war. Nearly 90 percent of its original stockpile has already been destroyed, mostly by incineration.

A 1925 treaty barred the use of chemical weapons after debilitating gas attacks in World War I, and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention called for eradicating them.

But international inspectors say Syria and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant group used them in 2014 and 2015. The United Nations Security Council met in closed session on Tuesday to consider whether to sanction Syria.

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Of course, prostitutes are needed. Give male scum and dregs a chance to fuck, so they will keep away from the good girls which are for us, the elite.

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Head transpplants carried out on monkey claims maverick surgeon - New Scientist

The head transplant juggernaut rolls on. Last year, maverick surgeon Sergio Canavero caused a worldwide storm when he revealed his plan to attempt a human head transplant to New Scientist. He claimed that the surgical protocol would be ready within two years and said he intended to offer the surgery as a treatment for complete paralysis.

Now, working with other scientists in China and South Korea, he claims to have moved closer to that goal with a series of experiments in animals and human cadavers.

“I would say we have plenty of data to go on,” says Canavero. “It’s important that people stop thinking this is impossible. This is absolutely possible and we’re working towards it.”

“Science through PR”

The work is described in seven papers set to be published in the journals Surgery and CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics over the next few months. New Scientist has not seen the papers and has not been able verify the latest claims. The issue of CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics will be guest-edited by one of Canavero’s collaborators.

The fact that Canavero has gone public with the latest results before the papers are published has raised eyebrows. “It’s science through public relations,” says Arthur Caplan, a bioethicist at New York University School of Medicine. “When it gets published in a peer-reviewed journal I’ll be interested. I think the rest of it is BS.”

Thomas Cochrane, a neurologist at Harvard Medical School’s Centre for Bioethics, agrees that Canavero’s premature disclosure is unorthodox. “It’s frowned upon for good reason,” he says. “It generates excitement before excitement is warranted. It distracts people from actual work that everyone can agree has a valid foundation. As far as I can tell, that operation has mostly been about publicity rather than the production of good science.”

Although we can’t verify them, New Scientist has seen images and videos of some of the procedures Canavero describes.

These include the video above of mice sniffing and moving their legs, apparently weeks after having the spinal cord in their necks severed and then re-fused. C-Yoon Kim, at Konkuk University School of Medicine in South Korea, who carried out the procedure, says his team have demonstrated the recovery of motor function in the forelimbs and hindlimbs of the animals. “Therefore I guess it is possible to reconnect the [spinal] cord after complete severance,” he says.

Canavero says Kim’s work shows that the spinal cord can re-fuse if it is cut cleanly in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), a chemical that preserves nerve cell membranes. “These experiments prove once and for all that simply using PEG, you can see partial recovery,” he says.

As well as the use of PEG, the procedure Canavero outlines in the papers includes techniques to aid recovery such as spinal cord stimulation and the use of a negative pressure device to create a vacuum to encourage the nerves to fuse.

According to Canavero, researchers led by Xiaoping Ren at Harbin Medical University, China, have carried out a head transplant on a monkey. They connected up the blood supply between the head and the new body, but did not attempt to connect the spinal cord. Canavero says the experiment, which repeats the work of Robert White in the US in 1970, demonstrates that if the head is cooled to 15 °C, a monkey can survive the procedure without suffering brain injury.

“The monkey fully survived the procedure without any neurological injury of whatever kind,” says Canavero, adding that it was kept alive for only 20 hours after the procedure for ethical reasons. New Scientist was, however, unable to obtain further details on this experiment.

“We’ve done a pilot study testing some ideas about how to prevent injury,” says Ren, whose work is sponsored by the Chinese government. He and his team have also performed experiments on human cadavers in preparation for carrying out the surgery, he says.

Rich backers needed Canavero is seeking funds to offer a head transplant to a 31-year-old Russian patient, Valery Spriridonov, who has a genetic muscle-wasting disease. Canavero says he intends to make a plea to Mark Zuckerberg to finance the surgery. Last week, Trinh Hong Son, director of the Vietnam-Germany Hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, offered to host the procedure.

“If the so-called head transplant works, this is going to open up a whole new science of spinal cord trauma reconstruction,” says Michael Sarr, editor of the journal Surgery and a surgeon at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. “We are most interested in spinal cord reconstruction using head transplantation as a proof of principle. Our journal does not necessarily support head transplantation because of multiple ethical issues and multiple considerations of informed consent and the possibility of negative consequences of a head transplant.”

Against the odds Caplan says Canavero should study nerve regrowth with PEG in people with spinal cord injury before attempting a head transplant. “There are hundreds of thousands of people who could benefit from something that would regrow the spinal cord. It’s like saying I want to fly to the next galaxy when it would be nice to set up a colony on Mars, and I think about the same odds.”

Nevertheless, Canavero believes head transplantation is the only treatment that will work for paralysed patients. “Gene therapy has failed. Stem cells, we’re still waiting. Even if they come now, for these patients there is no hope. Tetraplegia can only be cured with this. Long term, the body decays, organs decay. You have to give them a new body because even if you take care of the cord, you’re going nowhere.”

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Climate change is a weapon to destroy Europe and the Western world, because it will drive new populations in huge numbers to Europe. Climate change is easy to accelerate through forest fires anywhere in the world. Huge forest fires in the Third World can contribute more to global warming than all the cars of Europe and North America.

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